Synthesis Report: Illegal employment of third-country nationals in the European Union

Illegal employment of third-country nationals (TCNs) – defined as employment contravening migration and/or labour law – is a source of concern in the EU for economic, migration-related and social and fundamental rights reasons. It is also linked to trafficking in human beings for labour exploitation.

The following Synthesis Report presents a comparative overview of the main findings of the EMN Focussed Study on Illegal Employment of Third-Country Nationals (TCNs) in the EU based on National Reports from twenty-three Member States. The aim of this Focussed Study is to map and analyse the measures in place at Member States level to fight the illegal employment of TCNs, possible problematic areas and obstacles in this field and strategies and good practices to overcome them. The study examines each stage of the illegal employment policy ‘cycle’ for TCNs:

(i) preventive measures and incentives for employers and employees;

(ii) identification of illegal employment of TCNs;

(iii) sanctions for employers and

(iv) outcomes for employees.